Economic Values of Human and Elephant Conflict (Elephas maximus sumatranus Temminck, 1847) in Lubuk Kembang Bunga Village, Ukui Subdistrict, Pelalawan District, Riau Province
Nilai Ekonomi Konflik Manusia dan Gajah (Elephas maximus sumatranus Temminck, 1847) di Desa Lubuk Kembang Bunga, Kecamatan Ukui, Kabupaten Pelalawan, Provinsi Riau.
Sari, Rizki Ratna Ayu Paramita
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The utilization of elephant movement area by humans, causing competition space which triggered the conflict between humans and elephants, as in Lubuk Kembang Bunga Village, which surround the Tesso Nilo National Park (TNTN). Agricultural land and residential communities occupying territory cruise line movement, which periodically and traditionally traveled by elephant, and does not change despite the changing shape of the region. Human and elephant conflicts have a negative effect, either in the form of an elephant population decline in its natural habitat, or loss of material, moral and body physical damage the human being. The rate of deforestation which increases in the Tesso Nilo Forest, causing increased frequency of human and elephant conflicts in Lubuk Kembang Bunga Village. Loss of society increased thus increasing the public's reaction to face of conflict. Such conditions need to calculate the economic value due to human elephant conflicts as part of the consideration to obtain the conflict resolution efforts. This study aims to find out socio-economic condition of the community, identify the elephant entered the village area, identify the type and value of the damage and calculate the economic value of human loss due to human and elephant conflicts in Lubuk Kembang Bunga Village. A study was conducted in July - August 2009 in Lubuk Kembang Bunga Village, Ukui Subdistrict, Pelalawan District, Riau Province. Object of research is public, elephants, Flying Squad Team, and agricultural land affected. Data collected through the literature study, interviews and field observations. Method of calculating the economic value of human and elephant conflicts using the lost revenue approach (cost of time), medical expenses (cost of illness), the cost of building repairs, the cost to evacuate, the cost of agricultural production, and control costs of conflict. The results showed a change in farming patterns in Lubuk Kembang Bunga Village which triggered human and elephant conflicts. The conflict occurred in the community farm, which occupies the movement path of elephants roaming the area and adjacent to the forest (TNTN), the exit of elephants, and the river which is used by elephants to meet their needs. Location of agricultural land is located in Kampung Baru, Perbekalan, Simpang Jengkol, RAPP Street/Elang Mass and Jalan Pemda. Group of elephants which is entered the farm community in Lubuk Kembang Bunga Village is a group of elephants which are in the Southern part of Tesso Nilo Forest. This consisting of a single elephant and the elephant group. The entry of elephant society into agricultural land caused damage to agricultural commodities, such as oil palm, rubber, bananas, and cassava, as well as damage to the cottage work. The results of the calculation of damages obtained value of Rp.52,082,197.64. The efforts to control the conflict by the community, such as take care and control of the garden, creating a barrier, and expulsion. Meanwhile, the efforts made by Team Flying Squad such as patrol area, expulsion, and the convoy of wild elephants. The efforts to control this conflicts able to reduce losses of Rp. 14,648,118.09 only. This value is not comparable with costs to control the conflict, which amounted to Rp. 764,200,000. Calculating the losses of all components of society and the efforts made by the Flying Squad Team, obtained the economic value of human and elephant conflicts in Lubuk Kembang Bunga Village in the Year 2007 - 2008 amounting to Rp. 816,282,197.64.