Feed Management Design Sumatran Elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus Temminck 1847) in the Arboretum PT. Arara Abadi in Riau Province
Desain Pengelolaan Pakan Gajah Sumatera (Elephas maximus sumatranus Temminck 1847) di Arboretum PT Arara Abadi Propinsi Riau
Ginoga, Lin Nuriah
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Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus Temminck 1847) is one of the sub-species of asian elephant. This species was listed in IUCN red book of endangered status, while CITES categorizes the status of sumatran elephants in groups of Appendix I. Losing a place to live and disconnection of elephants roaming point lead also to the limited food resources. Management activities on a good feed elephants needed in order to overcome problems of lack of feed elephants, which feed on the Arboretum PT Arara Abadi can be fulfilled and ensure the welfare of elephants. Research was conducted at the Arboretum owned by PT Arara Abadi, Riau Province. Research carried out for two months in October to December 2009. Object of the research are eight sumatran elephants. The material used in research is sumatran elephant’s feed natural vegetation in the form of the arboretum. Equipment used, including: map work, scales, the tally sheet, peg, label specimens, machetes or knives, compass, camera, tape recorder, tape meter, rope, paper, large plastic bags, glove, field book, stationery and plant identification books lowland grass species and guide of ferns. Primary data including: the structure and composition of vegetation, species, and plant parts are edible, palatability of feed, biomass feed, the characteristics of the location of food resources and availability of forage elephants and elephant habitat carrying capacity. Secondary data including: bio-ecology, habitat, general condition of study sites, and other information as supporting data. Under plant vegetation data obtained by analysis of vegetation, with a sample plot of 1x1m2, a total of 20 plots. Carrying capacity of the habitat (K) for an elephant is calculated using the equation K= P.pu/C. Plant species which are used as feed by sumatran elephants in the location of observation Arboretum PT Arara Abadi are 12 species. Feed plants in the form of grasses and ferns, which belonging to the family Poaceae, Polypodiaceae, Vitaceae, and Pandanaceae. Parts of plants such as elephant feed is consumed whole part of the plant, the trunk + leaves, and trunk + leaves + flowers. The most preferred plant species (palatable) by sumatran elephants, were sianik/chantel (Sorghum halepense), jampang pait (Paspalum conjugatum), jukut pait (Axonopus compressus) and jukut jampang (Eleusina indica). Based on the results of biomass, the availability of feed, forage in the arboretum wet ton/day/80ha obtained at 10,08. With an elephant needs ton/day/8tail 2,24. Arboretum feed bearing capacity is 21 individuals. Resources of elephant’s feed located in the form of swamp residing along the border river. Things can do for feed management design are management of elephant binding sites, increased protection and security of the feed location of the elephant, and elephant binding rotation system of the good and the preservation of elephant forage in the rainy season.