Spatial distribution and habitat suitability model for javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822) in Ujung Kulon National Park
Sebaran spasial dan model kesesuaian habitat badak jawa (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822) di Taman Nasional Ujung Kulon
Rahmat, U. Mamat
Prasetyo, Lilik Budi
Kartono, Agus Priyono
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Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822) is the most critically endangered species (IUCN 2008). Currently, javan rhino distribution is limited to Ujung Kulon National Park (UKNP), Indonesia. Natural disasters, disease, poaching, encroachment and competition are threats to javan rhino population, hence it is necessary to establish pockets of habitats outside the UKNP which should be based on a study of the spatial distribution and habitat selection by the javan rhino in UKNP as actual habitat. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop a habitat suitability models based on the utilization distribution by javan rhino in UKNP. The specific objectives are: 1) to determine the utilization distribution and habitat selection index by javan rhino in UKNP, 2) to identify dominant habitat components that determine the presence of javan rhinoceros in UKNP, and 3) to build a habitat suitability model for javan rhino. The study was carried out in Management Section II area of UKNP, Pandeglang District, Banten Province. The results showed that javan rhinos were mostly occupied areas comprised of swampy shrub (w = 2.197) and shrub (w = 2.012), relatively open habitat (w = 4.233), flat slope (w = 1.313) and sloping areas (w = 1.007), lowland (w = 1.346), close to river (w = 1.087), close to road network (w = 1.395), close to coastal beaches (w = 1.862), close to wallowing areas (w = 3.709) and close to rumpang (open area) (w = 3.783). These indicated that javan rhino selected and had preferences for its habitat. The other results found that there were eight components identified to be the crucial for javan rhino habitat and appropriate for spatial modeling of habitat suitability, i.e. distance from the road, distance from the wallow, distance from the river, distance from the beach, distance from the rumpang (open area), slope, elevation and leaf area index. Dominant factor influencing the frequency of the javan rhino are slope, distance from the rumpang, distance from the wallow and distance from the beach (P<0,005; R2 81,4%). Spatial model of habitat suitability result 11% patches of low suitability, 23,7% patches of moderate suitability and 65,2% patches of high suitability. The validity of the model was 88,6%.
- DT - Forestry