Kajian perilaku reproduksi, preservasi semen, dan teknik inseminasi buatan pada anoa (Bubalus Sp.) di Penangkaran
Study of reproductive behavior, semen preservation, and aplication of artificial insemination technique in anoa (Bubalus Sp.) in Captivity
Yusuf, Tuty Laswardi
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The anoa population is unevitably decreasing due to various reasons, therefore anoa included in the list of endangered species by IUCN and Appendix I by CITIES. Anoa breeding efforts in captivity has not been successful. The objectives of the study were to determine and observe estrous cycle, semen characteristics, sperm preservation, AI application, and partus behavior in anoa. The studies were conducted at Ragunan Zoo Jakarta and Taman Safari Indonesia Bogor. Sexual behaviors were observed during the daytime, and the estrous cycles were determined. Ejaculates were collected by electroejaculation technique, and the biometry of external reproductive organs was measured. Ejaculates were evaluated, including the characterization of biochemical contents of the seminal plasma, and the sperm morphology and biometry. Ejaculates were extended with Tris and Nacitrate extenders, and then stored in the temperature of 4 oC. Frozen semen was prepared using Tris extender added with 5% glycerol. Intracervical insemination was conducted using extended semen (100 x 106 sperm/1.0 mL). The results showed that the female anoas exhibit the various estrous signs including restlessness, frequent urination, vaginal mucus excretion, vulva swollen and hyperemia, and flagging of the tail. The vaginal cytology showed that the domination of the superficial cells was occured during estrus period. The average of estrous cycle of anoa is 21.21±0.56 day with approximately 2 days estrous duration, and the optimum mating is predicted at day 2 of estrus. Various semen characteristics of anoa were observed: 1.03±0.19 mL of volume, 54.29±10.97% of motility, 245.71±87.68 x 106 mL-1 of sperm concentration, and 31.59±4.51% of sperm abnormality. The total length of anoa sperms was 62.94±0.50 μm. The lipid, Na, Ca, and Mg contain in the seminal plasma of male anoa were higher than the buffalo’s. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of seminal plasma demonstrated 10 bands (17-148 kDa). Extended semen was applicable to AI program for over 24-36 h, and post thawing sperm motility was 26.00±9.62%. Inseminations have resulted in one pregnancy. The first stage of partus (cervical dilatation) was characterized by the mucus discharge, abdominal contraction, and the rupture of the amniotic membrane; the second stage (fetal expulsion) was characterized by powerfull abdominal contraction and fetal delivery; and the third stage (placental expulsion) was indicated by placental delivery and the swallowing the placenta by the dam. The duration of each stages of parturition was 6-8 h, 30-60 min, and 15-180 min. The placental type of anoa is cotyledonaria, with the cotyledons diameter and thickness were 2.47±0.45 and 0.62±0.12 cm. It is concluded that the sexual behavior can be used to accurately determine the length of the estrous cycle of anoa. The semen quality was fairly good and AI technique was applicable to anoa. The characteristic of parturition process and placenta of anoa were comparable to the buffalo.
- DT - Veterinary Science