Aktivitas Harian dan Perilaku Menelisik (Grooming) Owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch Audebert, 1798) di Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Salak, Provinsi Jawa Barat
Fatimah, Diena Nurul
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Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch Audebert, 1798) was a Javan endemic primate, can be found in Gunung Halimun Salak National Park (GHSNP). Population of this species has been declining and, therefore, population and habitat management was needed. Research on daily activity and grooming will contribute to the conservation effort of this species. Grooming is a social activity that has double functions. Data on grooming and daily activities of Javan Gibbon is needed to obtain baseline data that could be used as a consideration for population and habitat management in GHSNP and as reference for ecotourism development. Research was carried out at Resort of Cikaniki – Citalahab Research Station. Equipments used were binocular, camera, range finder, phi band, compass, temperature logger and rain gauge. Observed objects were group A and group B of Javan Gibbons. Observation was done by scan sampling, focal animal sampling, ad libitum sampling, creating tree profile diagram, conducting temperature measurement and rainfall measurement. Data were analyzed and presented through graphs, tables and descriptive. Daily activity of Javan Gibbon was approximately 11 hours, from 06.20 - 17.25 WIB. The dominant daily activity was feeding (36,1%). Grooming behaviour of Javan Gibbon was divided into two types: autogrooming (scratch and self grooming) and allogrooming. Autogrooming behaviour was more frequent (600 times) than allogrooming (333 times). Autogrooming and allogrooming behaviour mostly performed in the morning. Autogrooming occurred at interval 1 to 30 seconds, while allogrooming occurred in interval 31 to 60 seconds. Feet was the most frequent groomed part (scratch 23,5% and self grooming 46,6%) in autogrooming behaviour, while allogrooming mostly performed at the back (43,6%). Sitting position was the most frequent used position in autogrooming (scratch 92,2% and self grooming 96,1%) and allogrooming (67,6%). There were 322 trees for grooming from 47 species. Dominant grooming tree was Rasamala (71 trees), with dominant family from Fagaceae (75 species) and dominant tree architecture was Attims (121 trees). Factors that affect grooming behaviour were sex, age class, weather, species and height of tree, active time duration, and disturbance (other group or human). Habitat and population management need to be done continuously through maintenance of grooming trees, forest area protection, limitation of human activity, cooperation with various stakeholders and also conservation education related to Javan Gibbon. The best observaton time of grooming activity was in morning between 07.00 -11.00 WIB.