Pengaruh Karakteristik Habitat Ruang Terbuka Hijau terhadap Keanekaragaman Kupu-Kupu (Studi Kasus di Kebun Raya Bogor)
Azahra, Siva Devi
Ginoga, Lin Nuriah
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Bogor Botanical Garden (BBG) which functions as an ex-situ conservation places is one of the green open space (GOS) in Bogor and also home to many kinds of animals including butterflies. Butterfly serve as bioindicator of the ecological function of green open space. The purpose of this research was to determine diversity, eveness, and the similarity habitat use by butterflies on five habitat types in Bogor Botanical Garden in order to clarify the relationship between of biotic and abiotic factors in green open spaces and butterfly assemblages. This research was conducted from November to December 2011. Data collected were butterfly species and population, habitat characteristic, and vegetation analysis. Butterfly diversity was investigated by using line transect count method in five types of habitats which were surveyed in the morning (08:00-12:00) with three repetitions in the daytime under fine weather conditions. The following five transects were selected in this study: (1) Fruit plants habitat, (2) Mediterranean plants habitat, (3) Woody plants habitat, (4) Aquatic plants habitat, and (5) Garuda Garden. The diversity was calculated by using species diversity index (H’), eveness index (E) and similarity index (Sj). The relationships between biotic and abiotic factors to butterfly population were also determined. Based on survey in five sites, a total of 60 species belonging of five families : Papilionidae (7 species), Nymphalidae (33 species) Pieridae (13 species), Lycaenidae (6 species), and Hesperiidae (1 species) were captured and identified. Butterfly’s habitat preferences are: 1) The optimum temperature for a butterfly is between 28 0C-34 0C, 2) Buterflies originally found in relatively open habitats (large value of the GSF and small value of LAI), 3) Butterfly need a variety of larval host plant, nectar resources, and shelter, and 4) Have a water source, especially stagnant water source. This study shows that the provision of adequate nectar resources and larval host plant are likely to be essential to the successful conservation of butterfly species.