Internalisasi eksternalitas jasa karbon dan jasa air sebagai insentif pendukung kesinambungan usaha hutan rakyat sistem agroforestri
Internalization externality of water and carbon services as an incentive to support agroforest sustainablity
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Accumulation of degraded and in critical condition of watersheds and impact of climate change in Java were indicate serious damage of environmental condition.It showed such as decrease of vegetation covered area till less than 20%, wide disparity of the river debit, frequent flood, drought and land sliding more often every year. These all result in the increase of potency of carbon emission from the degraded land, the decrease of water resource capacity in Java which only 7% of the area of Indonesia, but has the highest population amongs islands in Indonesia and supplies the largest Indonesian economy about 60%. So that based on calculation on increasing of population and rise needs of water predicted in 2020 there is water shortage up to 150 billion cubicmeter in Java. Efforts to reduce the carbon emission, and to manage water resources through watershed environment rehabilitation such as soil and water conservation, using functional approach (organizational roles) or structural approach is crucial to be carried out especially for the very critical watershed. Meanwhile the development small scale agroforestry by poor farmers in Sumberejo village of upstream region of Temon subwatershed has proven strategic role in both reducing impact of critical land on water availability and on potency of carbon emission, and as one rising prior livelihood of farmer household. Its performing being in accordance with objective of latest development policy which do in such pro growth, pro job, pro poor and pro environment base on rural area. The main problem is, whether the poor farmers growing their welfare and still keep conserving their small scale agroforestry continuity. Based on concept of total economy values of agroforestry and economic valuation methods, this research make use of opportunity to transform economic values of water and carbon service (positive externality) as public service which produced by agroforestry into generating income’s source of farmer household. As consequence of market failure to put the externalities into price market, there is need government support in term of instrument finance policy to realize the idea by internalizing of externality. The research found that result of internalizing of externality in vary land hold of agro forestry economically be able to lift up of farmer household’s income above poverty boundary and its become incentive of farmer to keep agro forestry continuity. To implicate the financial policy, base on vary landholding of agro forestry, there were three design of allocation both subsidy and softloan recommended in this research. Finnally there are policy support needs to facilitate of agroforestry service economic valuation and policy support on developing of payment on environment service mechanism locally.Kerusakan lahan dan hutan produktif menjadi lahan kritis terutama di hulu Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) yang berakumulasi dengan tidak menentunya musim akibat perubahan iklim telah menimbulkan kerusakan lingkungan yang serius akibat meluasnya lahan kritis yang tidak mampu diimbangi dengan upaya rehabilitasinya di pulau Jawa. Kenyataan adanya kesenjangan laju lahan kritis dan laju rehabilitasi telah menurunkan daya dukung multi fungsi Daerah Aliran Sungai pada hidup dan kehidupan. Agroforestri di pedesaan bagian hulu DAS di Kabupaten Wonogiri telah berperan penting dalam upaya peningkatan mata pencaharian dan lapangan kerja rumah tangga petani di pedesaan, terbukti berhasil melakukan pemulihan penutupan lahan dan konservasi tanah dan air dengan keluaran berupa eksternalitas positif jasa.. Keberadaan ekternalitas positif berupa jasa air dan jasa serap karbon (pengurangan emisi) berperan sebagai public service tersebut telah ,menempatkan agroforestri di daerah hulu DAS menjadi penting untuk dipertahankan dan dikembangkan keberadaannya.