Model pengembangan taman nasional laut: optimalisasi pengelolaan perikanan tangkap di Taman Nasional Karimunjawa
Model of marine national park development: optimization of capture fisheries management in Karimunjawa National Park
Nurani, Tri Wiji
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Karimunjawa National Park (KNP) inhabited mostly by fishery household, surrounds by 111.625 ha of waters. Fishing zone is dedicated for traditional fisheries. Therefore the capture fisheries in KNP should be adjusted to accommodate conservancy and utilization objectives. The objectives of the research are: (1) to design management model of capture fishery in KNP; and (2) to design fishing zone model within traditional fishery zone. To address problems related to the park’s management, a system approach was used in this research. Method for evaluating park’s management effectiveness was multi-criteria analysis (MCA) with bio-physic, social economic, and management aspects, and also economic valuation. Managerial model of capture fisheries was performed by implementing some analyzes: comparative performance index (CPI), bioeconomic, linear goal programming (LGP), MCA, feasibility study, and institutional analysis. Model of fishing zone is performed by using geographical information system (GIS). Strategic policy was conducted by using strength weaknesses opportunity and threats (SWOT) and interpretative structural modeling (ISM). Evaluation of park’s management show the value 0,44 on scale 0 to 1 or effectiveness level at 44%. Governance aspect provides the largest contribution in the assessment, followed by economic and biophysical aspects. The economic valuation result Rp. 53.051 million. Fishing activities accounted for the largest value Rp. 30.513 million (58%). The managerial model of capture fisheries named PITASI is composed by the leading fish from reef fish is jack trevallies and anchovy for pelagic fish. Reef fish potency is 149 ton/year and pelagic fish 19.080 ton/year. The optimal number of fishing gear for reef fisheries are hand line 336 units and trap 21 units; for pelagic fish are troll line 336 units, boat lift net 115 units, and gillnet 168 units. Hand line and fish trap for reef fisheries, and troll line, boat lift net, and gillnet for pelagic fisheries, are competent to develop continuously in KNP. The fishing zone is divided to be three areas: (1) 0-3 nautical mil (nm) from coastal line is for reef fisheries (hand line and fish trap); (2) 3-4 nm is for pelagic fisheries (gillnet and boat lift net); and (3) more than 4 nm is for pelagic fisheries with dynamic fishing gear (troll line). Fisheries management strategic includes developing potency of fish resources, increasing institutional capacity, and also monitoring and law enforcement. Strategy of implementation model includes five elements are affected society sector, the main constraints, the measuring standard, required activities, and involved institutional.
- DT - Fisheries