Contestation of science with farmers’ local knowledge on South Kalimantan Tidal Swampland
Pandjaitan, Nurmala K.
Dharmawan, Arya Hadi
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Tidal swampland is a marginal land that has two main constraints if reclaimed as agricultural land. These constraints are the high level of acidity and deep flooding. Local farmers with their local knowledge has been successfully manage tidal swamp land to provide their food needs. Science and technology in agriculture through the green revolution has been developed with the aim to fulfill the government's food needs. The program is implemented through increasing agricultural production and business efficiency. Introduction of agricultural science and technology at the tidal swampland has also an extensive social impact, especially with regard to the existence of local knowledge of farmers in tidal swamp land management. Contestation process between science with local knowledge on tidal swampland affected by the tidal swampland system of biophysical and social systems. This study was aimed to analyze the existence of local knowledge in the management of tidal swampland when contestation with science that became basic of recent modern agriculture system. This research is a case study on tidal swampland types A, B, C, and D. Data was collected by triangulation methods through in-depth interviews, life history and secondary data obtained from reports and historical records. The results showed that the forms of owned farmers’ local knowledge on the tidal swampland include: 1) knowledge on rice cultivation; 2) knowledge on land management; 3) knowledge about the maintenance and land conservation; and 4) knowledge on farming equipment. Local knowledge is always a process of change and evolve depending on outside forces that exist. Local knowledge that evolution was mainly driven by contestation with the science that introduced in the farming systems in tidal swampland. In the contestation proces, just a few science in type A tidal swampland can be applied especially in high yielding variety. Local knowledge society about the local rice farming systems still exist, but social institutions have been dominated by the presence of farmers' groups (‘kelompok tani’) that the government introduced as a supporting institution in modern agricultural systems. In the tidal swampland types B, C and D occurred science dominance in the application of agricultural technology such as the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and lime for agriculture (‘dolomit’). So was the case with local institutions of farmers (‘handil’) has been replaced by institutional role of farmer groups. Form of hybridization that occured between science and local knowledge in the form of high yielding variety-local rice farming systems called 'sawit dupa' numerous in the tidal swampland type B. Social system response may take the form of receipt of science in their agricultural systems through of adjustment process in fitting together (coadaptation) or otherwise suffered rejection because of not correspond with the biophysical environments and social systems
- DT - Human Ecology