Ecosystem characteristics of mangrove at small islands of wakatobi national park, Southeast Sulawesi Province
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The study was aimed to elaborate structure and composition of mangrove vegetation and to examine relationship between mangrove vegetation pattern and abiotic factors in Kaledupa, Derawa and Hoga Islands in Wakatobi National Park. Sampling of vegetation was done continuously across mangrove community, starting from front (seaward) vegetation formation to the inner formation (landward) by line transect and plot methods. Structure and composition of were determined through vegetation analysis with parameter including frequency, relative frequency, density, relative density, dominance, relative dominance, importance value, zonation determination, natural regeneration, distribution of stem diameter (diameter et breast high) and status of mangrove community. Species diversity was analyzed using Shannon Wiener Index. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to see difference of abiotic factors among islands and Duncan-test to examine abiotic factors having significantly different responses (p = 0,05). 20 species of true mangrove were found and the largest species was found in Kaledupa Island. Distribution of mangrove vegetation species in the study areas was supposed to be related to wave protection, siltation, and freshwater input. The highest total individual density was found in Kaledupa Island and the lowest one was found in Derawa Island. Species of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk., and Rhizophora mucronata Lamk with the highest density was found in Derawa Island. Diversity Index of mangrove vegetation species was chategorized as low. Species having a good natural regeneration was found at Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob., and Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Kaledupa Island, and Osbornia octodonta F.v.M Hoga Island. For genus of Rhizophora besides reproduce through seed/propagule, it is also reproduce vegetatively through branches. Environmental factors of soil having significant relationship with the community pattern in this study were: pH, Kalium (available), and Salinity. Content of soil organic material, Nitrogen (total), Phosphate (available) and soil texture (silt, clay and sand) did not show a significant relationship with the community pattern of mangrove vegetation community. Zonation pattern of mangrove vegetation was only found in Kaledupa Island. Mangrove zonation Kaledupa Island consisted of four zones. Successively, from the seaward to the landward were Rhizophora mucronata Lamk., Rhizophora apiculata Bl., Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob., Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou zone. Height of seawater inundation was factor having significant relationship with zonation pattern. Distribution of diameter classes was chategorized as J-shaped graph model. Status of mangrove community in this national park was classified as damaged class due to human activities.