Involution of agrarian movement and the fate of peasants: a study of peasant movement dynamics in Lampung Province
Dharmawan, Arya H.
Lawang, Robert M.Z.
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One of the elements of Lampung community which suffer political, economic and cultural injustice is peasant. In the New Order era, peasant were not able to fight for a fair and equal right and need of agrarian (land) resource due to state oppression. At the era of democratization, the structure of political opportunity is widely opened and peasants have their chance to continue their assertion. In the early reformation era, collective actions have been organized up to provincial level. Up to this moment their condition tend to weaken. The researh question was: “How peasant movement which occur and grow during the already opened democratic era cannot strengthen itself and make substantial change for peasants’ life ?” The purpose of this research was: (1) to clarify the conditions of agrarian relations which become the main trigger of peasant movement; (2) to explain interrelationship between the elements that support the collective actions of peasant movement; (3) and to explain the course of the peasant movement development (which is represented by peasant movement organizations) in making structural agrarian changes in democratic era. This research was intentionally conducted in Lampung Province due to some criteria, made use of constructivism paradigm, with a case study design on the provincial level peasant movement organization (Dewan Tani Lampung, Ikatan Petani Lampung, Serikat Petani Lampung and Mirak Nadai). As the consequence, used qualitative method. Data was obtained through in-depth interviews, documentations, observations and secondary data. The data source was NGO, peasant movement activists, enterprises, government agencies, researh agencies, and peasants. Data were processed and analyzed using qualitative methode. The results of this research indicate, first, strained agrarian structural situation was the main precondition of the emergence of peasant movement. This condition was triggered by development policy that was not responsive to peasant interests. Second, no matter how exclusive the political opportunity was, there were always spaces for peasants to struggle. Third, integrative resource structure of peasants and non-peasants was the main characteristic of provincial scale peasant movement. Fourth, the strengthening speed of resource mobilization structure of the peasant movement and positive response of peasants to political opportunity (national political structure deconstruction as a momentum) were due to potential availability of resource mobilization which grown within sub-cultural peasant opposition. Fifth, the stagnation of peasant movement occured because the strengthening process of resource mobilization structure was depraved by behavioural disorientation of elite actors which cause unpredictable and uncontrolable consequences. Sixth, the agrarian movement involution toak place when resource mobilization structure weaken (deformed, decoupled, and stagnant) and structural properties of movement organization adhered to proper agrarian system, while the movement program has not been institutionalized by it self.
- DT - Human Ecology