Model Pembangunan Daerah Berkelanjutan Melalui Transformasi Struktur Ekonomi Berbasis Sumberdaya Pertambangan ke Sumberdaya Lokal Terbarukan (Studi Kasus Tambang Tembaga dan Emas Proyek Batu Hijau PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara di Sumbawa Barat NTB)
Sustainable Regional Development Model through Structural Transformation of the Mining Based To Local Renewable Resource Based Economy (Case Study of Copper and Gold Mining of Newmont Nusa Tenggara, Co., at Batu Hijau in West Sumbawa),
Saefulhakim, R. Sunsun
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The economy of West Sumbawa Regency, Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, in the period of 2000-2006, highly depended on one mining sector (94 % of Gross Regional Domestic Product) comprising mainly copper and gold mining at Batu Hijau operated by Newmont Nusa Tenggara, Co. Due to the nature of mining, that tends to be monopolistic business, foreign dominated shares, limited deposit and life cycle and terminated in relatively short term, the mining would significant detrimental effects on economic development of West Sumbawa. To avoid the bad effects and to sustain the economic development of West Sumbawa, it is necessary to develop and diversify the economy to renewable non-mining based sectors, especially agriculture in a broader terms and its business and industrial chains through a proper utilization of the mining’s revenues received as royalty, taxes and fees, in regional development budgeting. Objectives of this research are to (a) identify non mining based sectors to be systematically developed to transform regional economic structure and reduce dependcy on mining sectors, (b) analyze the role of regional budgeting and cooperation among region on development performance, and (c) identify regulations and policy instruments that support the regional economic transformation. The research is conducted through three steps. The frist is to analyze input-output (IO) table of Regency of West Sumbawa, to capture inter-sectoral linkages and multiplier effects of renewable and non mining sectors on economic development performance. The second is to analyze budgeting roles in improving development performance of West Sumbawa. The third is to analyze regulations and policy instruments from the central upto the local governments and analyze interaction pattern among decision making stakeholders by using metodological framework of the Institute of Development Studies, that focuses on naration and actor network and interest onto mining transformation for the sustainable development. Findings of the research show that agricultural based business and industrial chains supported by adequate supplies of the electricity and clean water are the strategic development direction to stimulate transformation process of the economic structure. The main agricultural basis that need to be developed are: livestock production, fisheries, plantation, food crops and horticulture. In addition, forest resource management is an integral part of agricultural based economy, in particular to support competitive electricity and water supplies. The development of agricultural based business and industrial chains will support : 1) development of economic activity chains as a whole, 2) economic growth, 3) fiscal capacity improvement 4) business attractiveness, 5) employments, and 6) people income. It is identified that up to this time the ecomonic transformation to the agricultural based business and industrial chains has not been sufficiently supported by a proper regulation, stakeholder behavior and budgeting. Since the mining can generate large land rent but in a relatively short term and unrenewable, it is potential to use this as initial source of capital for the economic transformation. However, the existing regulation has not yet arranged to get parts of the land rent to support the process. The lack of supports in terms of stakeholder behavior is indicated by lack of awareness, communications and cooperation network among them. The stakeholders include the Department of Energy and Mineral Resources, Commission of Mining and Energy of the Indonesian House of Representatives, local government of West Sumbawa, Regional House of Representatives of West Sumbawa, Newmont Nusa Tenggara, Co., educational institutes and academicians, related corporations, non governmental organitations, elites and religious leaders. Budget allocation and interregional cooperation on budgetting can significantly improve: 1) economic growth rate, 2) fiscal capacities, 3) people welfare, and 4) people economic participation. However, since their effects are inelastic yet, the economic transformation can be realized if the budgeting allocation and the interregional cooperation on budgetting to the agricultural based business and industrial chains, is significantly increased from its current levels.Struktur perekonomian Kabupaten Sumbawa Barat NTB sejak 2000-2006 sangat dominan tergantung pada satu sektor yakni pertambangan tembaga dan emas proyek Batu Hijau PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara (PTNNT) sebesar 94 % dalam produk domestik regional bruto (PDRB). Sektor pertambangan di Sumbawa Barat termasuk salah satu tambang skala besar di Indonesia sehingga dominasinya tidak hanya terhadap PDRB Kabupaten tersebut namun juga berdampak secara regional bagi Provinsi NTB. Performa proyek Batu Hijau PTNNT saat ini adalah 1) komposisi kepemilikan saham perusahaan tersebut 80% dikuasai perusahan asing (Newmont Indonesia Ltd dan Nusa Tenggara Mining Corp) dan 20% dikuasai oleh perusahan swasta nasional (PT. Fukuafu Indah). Didalam Kontrak Karya proyek Batu Hijau PTNNT terdapat pasal yang mewajibkan perusahaan tersebut melakukan divestasi saham hingga 51% (tahun 2010) untuk promosi kepentingan nasional (PTNNT, 2000). Berdasarkan keputusan arbitrase internasional, divestasi saham 2006 dan 2007 sebesar 10% menjadi milik pemerintah Propinsi NTB, Kabupaten Sumbawa Barat dan Kabupaten Sumbawa bekerjasama dengan PT. Multi Capital dengan komposisi 75% milik PT. Multi Capital dan 25% milik 3 Pemda tersebut, 2) peluang usaha selama masa operasi menurut kinerja departemen kontrak (2005) dimanfaatkan oleh nasional (92%), Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat (5%) dan Sumbawa Barat (3%) (PTNNT, 2005), 3) kontribusi proyek tersebut terhadap kapasitas fiskal (APBD) Kabupaten Sumbawa Barat tahun 2005 sebesar Rp. 80,98 Milyar dengan perincian dana bagi hasil sumberdaya alam Rp. 56,17 Milyar, dana bagi hasil pajak Rp. 24,39 Milyar, pendapatan asli daerah Rp. 0,31 Milyar, dana alokasi umum Rp, 0,09 Milyar dan dana alokasi khusus Rp. 0,01 (LPEM UI, 2006), 4) sedangkan komposisi tenaga kerja adalah Sumbawa Barat (33%) dan non Sumbawa Barat (67%).