Model for sustainable dam development planning: case study of jatigede dam development
Model Perencanaan Pembangunan Bendungan yang Berkelanjutan – Studi Kasus Bendungan Jatigede
J Purwanto, M. Yanuar
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Model for sustainable dam development planning is an important process to plan sustainable control on social problems in construction stage and to plan sustainable achievement in dam optimal function along dam life time. Dam development is needed because of unevenly distribution of water in time and space, so then it is possible that flood occur in a certain place but drought occur in other place in the same time, vice versa. Dam development can reduce risk of flood and drought through a reservoir operation by using less water from reservoir but much for storing water in rainy season and using some major part of it in dry season. Jatigede dam planning and construction becomes the site for the case study in this research. There are three items becomes the focus of this research i.e. sedimentation, water balance and land acquisition. These factors are considered as the most important factors in planning a dam. Because of that, the model of dam planning contains of sub model of sedimentation and sub model of water balance, and then it will be integrated with study on land acquisition. The submodels will be run in three conditions i.e. the first is the condition based on data in original design, the second condition is based on present situation on site, the last condition is the condition on which the optimal function of the dam can be maintained during dam life time. Study on land acquistion is run on the land belong to the people and forest land. High sediment rates in catchment area of Jatigede dam in original design and moreover in present condition, makes the reservoir support on dam optimal function fails to survive along the dam life time. After that, in water balance analysis, this sediment situation influences the reliability of water availability especially for irrigation in Rentang Irrigation area. There are problems on land acquisition such as illegal buildings on land, resettlement and claims on previous land acquisition activities in the past.Through the sub models running, optimal functions of Jatigede dam can be attained by reducing the current value to a certain allowable value of sediment rates, sediment control in steps along dam life time and using of a certain variety of paddy which has low need of water. Solution on land acquisition in Jatigede dam, especially for the land owned by people, clear and certain policy is needed, besides strong support on program and financial for resettlement. Efficiency on time allocation and steps in usage of forest land procedures is urgently needed, if not, reservoir innundation which is scheduled in October 2013 will be in danger. Recommendation on dam planning and recommended activities in dam planning, building and operating, are important values to be used for future dam planning.Kebutuhan pembangunan bendungan yang meningkat antara lain karena pembangunan bendungan berperan besar dalam mengatasi masalah-masalah pengambilan air baku untuk berbagai kebutuhan yang meningkat terutama karena pertumbuhan penduduk, kekurangan air minum dan kekurangan sumber daya energi, adanya kompetisi untuk mendapatkan air yang meningkat dan kualitas Daerah Aliran Sungai yang menurun yang mengakibatkan terjadinya banjir serta adanya peningkatan kebutuhan pangan yang menuntut peningkatan produksi pangan. Pembangunan bendungan dibutuhkan karena tidak meratanya distribusi air dalam waktu dan ruang, sehingga mungkin saja banjir terjadi di suatu tempat tetapi kekeringan terjadi di tempat lain, atau sebaliknya. Pembangunan bendungan dapat mengurangi resiko terjadinya banjir dan kekeringan melalui operasi waduk.