Kesesuaian habitat dan distribusi burung air di Percut Sei Tuan, Sumatera Utara
Habitat suitability and waterbirds distribution in Percut Sei Tuan, North Sumatra
Prasetyo, Lilik Budi
Mulyani, Yeni Aryati
MetadataShow full item record
Teori kesesuaian habitat sering digunakan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara spesies dengan komponen habitat yang diduga mempengaruhi kehidupannya, menilai kondisi habitat dan mempersingkat waktu survey dan menghemat biaya survey. Percut Sei Tuan, merupakan salah satu wilayah lahan basah di Pesisir Timur Sumatera Utara yang menyediakan sebuah laboratorium alam untuk menganalisis komunitas burung dan berbagai faktor yang mendukung keberadaannya. Kegiatan yang dilakukan selama ini di Indonesia khususnya di Sumatera Utara hanya terbatas pada kegiatan inventarisasi saja. Penelitian dengan mengkaitkan analisis komunitas burung dengan konsep kesesuaian habitat terhadap kelompok burung air (merandai dan pantai) belum pernah dilakukan. Berdasarkan hal tersebut di atas maka penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis komunitas burung di Percut Sei Tuan dalam hubungannya dengan aplikasi teori kesesuaian habitat dan distribusi.Percut Sei Tuan is an important bird habitat in Sumatera. Not only important habitat for resident waterbirds, this area is a stop-over area for migratory waterbirds every year. This study aimed at analyzing the importance of Percut Sei Tuan as waterbird habitats, including its macrozoobenthic food source, and examining its habitat suitability for waterbirds. The study was conducted from September 2010 to March 2011. Concentration count and block method were used to assess the number and species of waterbirds in four sites, namely Bagan Percut, Tanjung Rejo, Pematang Lalang and Pantai Labu. Samples of macrozoobenthos (n = 10 plots) were taken using sweep nets and core samplers. A spatial analysis using ArcGis 9.3 was used to identify habitat suitability. Waterbirds and macrozoobenthic communities were calculated with Shannon, evenness and similarity indences. Similarity among communities were showed with a dendrogram. Stepwise regression was used to analyze physical and chemical factor. A total of 190,375 individuals of 50 waterbird species were recorded. Percut Sei Tuan have waterbirds diversity index of 2.20. Species diversity at four sites varied among 1.69 and 2.84. Wading birds were dominant in Tanjung Rejo while shorebirds were dominant at three sites. The highest diversity was found in Pematang Lalang while the lowest was found in Tanjung Rejo. Waterbirds were classified into four groups based on guild, i.e. wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowls and seabirds. Based on migratory habit, waterbirds were classified into three groups i.e. resident, migrant and unkown. The research revealed that there were 26 macrozoobenthos species in Percut Sei Tuan. Diversity index of macrozoobenthos was 2.68, diversity was varied among sites, the highest was at Bagan Percut 3 (2.26) and the lowest was at Bagan Percut 2 (0.71). Similarity index was 0.82. Sediment depth and texture were affected macrozoobenthic abundance and diversity. Bivalves were the highest abundance group of species in the community. This research found only five of 10 land cover used to feeding ground by waterbirds i.e. mud flat, rice field, fish pond, forest marsh and shrub. Waterbirds used mudflat at Bagan Pecut, Pematang Lalang and Pantai Labu for feeding ground. The analysis to physical and chemical factor (i.e. macrozoobenthic, height sediment, water depth, pH, BOD, and salinity) showed significant effect up to 60% for waterbirds presence. Feeding ground selected by waterbirds depend on food availability, habitat availability and degree of disturbance. Human distrubance had a high impact on the population and distribution of endangered Mycteria cinerea and Leptoptilos javanicus. Habitat suitability of wading birds and shorebirds was generally found in the same place, namely mudflat, rice fields and fishponds. However, the feeding ground of both bird guilds was different.
- DT - Forestry