Konsumsi Pangan, Status Gizi Dan Kesehatan Anak Retardasi Mental Di Kota Medan
Ingtyas, Fatma Tresno
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The objectives of this study were to investigate factors relating with mental retardation, and to analyze food consumption, nutritional status, health status and development of retarded children. Retrospective and cross sectional design were used in this study. The study was conducted in Medan at three special schools for retarded children (Sekolah Luar Biasa tipe C or SLB-C) i.e. SLB YPAC, SLB St. Lusia and SLB Abdi Kasih from April until September, 2003. Samples were taken purposively from all of light and moderate retarded children. Factors influenced mental retardation were tool aided birth, fall accident while pregnant, pregnant mother took unprescribed medicines, bleeding in trimester II, mother hypertension, anemia during pregnant and the child suffered frequent fever. Mostly, children consumption level for energy, iron, vitamin C, vitamin A & vitamin B6 were low. The low proportion was higher on moderate retarded children (except for vitamin A). Anthropometrically, the nutrition status of most children were good. However, based on iron status, most of them were anemia. The health status of most children were moderate and samples with frequent illnesses and moderate retarded had higher proportion than the light retard ones. The development of light retarded children tended to be higher than the moderate ones. Mother's education significantly and positively correlated (p<0.05) with energy consumption level of the children. Food caring pattern had positive correlation (p<0.05) with vitamin C, energy and iron consumption levels. Children food habit had positive correlations (p<0.05) with iron consumption level. Energy, protein, iron, folate and vitamin B6 consumption levels were positively correlated (p<0.05) with hemoglobine content. W/A nutritional status had positive correlation (p<0.05) with energy, protein, iron, folate and vitamin B6 consumption levels. H/A nutrition status positively correlated (p<0.05) with energy, protein, iron & vitamin B6 consumption levels. Child development abilities were significantly affected by all indicators of nutritional antropometric status (W/A, H/A and W/H), iron and folate consumption levels, and health status.