Pembentukan elite politik di dalam etnis bugis dan makassar menuju hibriditas budaya politik
Dharmawan, Arya Hadi
Kolopaking, Lala M.
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The purposed of this studi; (i) explore the transformation and interaction process of Buginese and Makassarese elites with their clients in achieving, maintaining and expanding their political and economic power, started from the traditional phase to secularism phase; (ii) discover the dynamics of Buginese and Makassarese elites formation specifically in political communication and economy in articulating their groups‘ interest and maintaining the political dynamic at every level; (iii) discover and understand the process of Buginese and Makassarese elites in using the symbols of culture, power, money and other political sosiology culture to achieve and maintain (reproduction) their power at the micro, mezzo and macro level. Constructive paradigm used in exploring the process of elite‘s formation in Buginese and Makassarese. A paradigm that position itself as the antitheses from the paradigm of positivism or post-positivism, which is relied heavily on observation and objectivity in finding a reality or knowledge. Constructivism stated that reality exists in several forms of mental constructions based on social experiences, it is locally and specific depends on the individual who did it (ontology). Therefore, reality that is observed by an individual cannot be generalized to other people. This confirmed that epistemological relation between observation and object is one entity, subjective, and as a result of integration of interaction among them. The result of this studi showed four phases of transformation process in the formation of Buginese and Makassarese elites; (i) traditional phase, where elite formation dominated by symbolic knowledge influence; (ii) feudalism phase; new capitalized era and land became a tool for power reproduction; (iii) Modern Islamic phase marked with the elites‘ awareness toward intellectuality and morality; (iv) Secularism phase, where pragmatism dominated in the existence of Buginese and Makassarese elites. Colonialization or ―bed politics‖ (political marriage) used during traditional, feudalism and modern Islamic phase, while transactional approach and politics hybrid culture, used during secularism phase in maintaining the elites‘ power. The process of elite formation in Bone used ―closed model‖. Stage of political power at Bone restricted only to aristocrats. On the contrary, influence and power of aristocrats at Gowa had been declined, thus political stage in Gowa more open and the elites‘ background are varied. Buginese of Bone predominantly used cultural symbols and power in achieving elite position, while the Makassarese of Gowa tends to use power, money and politic hybrid to engaged in the political power. Buginese elites tend to concentrate their power among them (same ethnicity, religion and territory), while the Makassarese elites (Gowanese) balance their power by sharing it according to the representation of territory, ethnicity and religion.
- DT - Human Ecology