Q-fever: suatu tinjauan perkembangan teknik diagnostik dan permasalahannya
Q-fever is a zoonoses that caused by Coxiella burnetti. Q-fever case in Indonesia was rarely reported. This was happen because of lack of knowledge in Qfever diagnose. The study of the disease diagnose technique become important and useful for Q-fever controlling in the field. This research was objected to study the Qfever diagnose technique and its problem. The first serologic diagnose technique used was the serological method and aimed to identify antibody (IgG and IgM) titer to C. burnetii. Serological method that firstly used was the Capillary tube in 1969 done by Fiset et al. In 1980s complement fixation test (CFT), immunofluorescence assay ([FA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed. CFT was also developed for diagnose the acute or chronic Q-fever specifically. However, CFT was less sensitive and costly than ELSA and IFA (Maurin & Raoult 1999). In 1999, IFA was used by Maurin and Raoult and became reference diagnose technique for Qfever. Although the test has high specificity and sensitivity but the result of the test was subjective (Slaba et al. 2005). ELISA diagnose technique has high specificity and sensitivity and could done the screening test in large number and very simple to use because it can be done automatically (field et al. 2000). However, the test was difficult to interpreted than the IFA (Maurin & Raoult 1999). The other method is PCR. PCR is the very sensitive method in laboratory diagnose for Q-fever. The PCR that commonly use are classic PCR, First-round PCR, Nested PCR and Real Time PCR. DNA sequencing has also developed, however this method is expensive and limited in small scale (Zhang et al. 1997).