Analisis konflik pemanfaatan lahan wilayah pesisir (studi kasus pantai utara Jakarta)
Conflict analysis of landuse in coastal area (case study in coastal north Jakarta)
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This Research was motivated by a never-ending question, which arises in coastal land use conflict especially in Indonesia, and generally in the Developing Countries. Squatters, a group of people living in the slum area, generally received many physiology stress like intimidation, terror, violence, kidnapping, force Squatter to move coming from the land owner and hardly meet the best solution among parties involved how to solve coastal land conflict problems. Its results both Squatters and landowner have no benefits at all and they spend extremely costly to force their each interest. Such condition could decrease their economic productivity. As a consequence the economic performance of coastal area is becoming declining. The reason why squatters interested living in North Jakarta Coastal Area is because of the low price a piece of land and easy to earn a living as fishermen or fishpond farmer. Other reason related include: (1) closed proximity to the fishery resources; (2) high demand for unskilled labors;(3) close distance between house and work location; (4) low transportation cost; and (5) high pride living in Jakarta as capital city. The attractiveness of North Jakarta coastal area for Squatters are due to the following: (1) no clear boundaries of land's property right; (2) many of lands uncertified; (3) transfer of ownership among Squatters; (4) many of land unexplored; (5) changing of land use ownership from public to private. By considering the unclear characteristics of juridical status of coastal land, Squatter has many opportunities to occupy the land illegally with the various following ways: (1) rent the land to the old residents under market price; (2) pay money for civilian; (3) build houses without permission. Squatter occupied Coastal land could be found in river area, swamp, unutilized land either government or private, land along the railway, reclamation land, conservation land and land along "Jetty" area. To solve the coastal land conflicts, an economics approach is needed with assumption that conflict is a concept. As a concept, conflict could be measured by using economic variables called benefits and costs to be taken into account in natural resources. Natural resources in coastal area have two values. They are use value and non-use value. All values will be calculated as Total Economic Value (TEV) which sum a use value and non-use value. GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling Sysstem) was used to calculated the value of land rents. The result of such running model produce: the land should be maintained, should be expanded and should be added of squatters. The region considered to move out of its squatter covers Kapuk Muara, Penjaringan, Pluit I, Ancol, Priok, Tugu Selatan. Whereas the region considered moving in Squatters covers Pluit 11, Kali Baru, Marunda, Kamal Muara and Cilincing. Based on GAMS analysis, regression equations and game theory, it is prepared resolution conflict program consists of (1) back to village program; (2) Squatter empowerment program; (3) Land consolidation program and; (4) Flat housing program. Such resolution program will contribute benefit to the existence of squatter, in order to achieve safety, happiness, and increasing their income.Penelitian ini dimotivasi oleh pertanyaan yang tidak pernah berakhir mengenai konflik pemanfaatan lahan wilayah pesisir khususnya di Indonesia dan umumnya Negara-negara berkembang. Squatter yang merupakan kelompok masyarakat yang tinggal di daerah kumuh, pada umumnya mendapatkan tekanan psikologi seperti intimidasi, terror, kekerasan, penculikan, penggusuran dan jarang terjadi penyelesaian terbaik dari pihak-pihak yang terkait untuk menyelesaikan konflik pemanfaatan lahan. Hasilnya baik squatter maupun pemilik lahan tidak mendapatkan manfaat sama sekali dan mereka mengeluarkan biaya yang terlalu tinggi untuk memaksakan kepentingannya masing-masing. Kondisi tersebut dapat menurunkan produktivitas ekonominya dan implikasinya adalah kinerja ekonomi kawasan pesisir menurun.
- DT - Fisheries