Komunitas Burung pemakan buah di Panaruban, Subang:ekologi makan dan penyebaran biji tumbuhan semak
Solihin, Dedy Duryadi
Prijono, Siti Nuramaliati
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Java has been experiencing a heavy deforestation in the 16th century. Combined with a densely human population, most forests have changed into open land with shrubs and secondary vegetation. To recover disturbed vegetation the role of seed dispersal agents, e.g. frugivorous birds is really important. So, this paper describes the role of frugivorous birds as shrubland seed dispersal agents at Panaruban, Subang. The study was conducted since April 2005 until May 2006. Census of bird fs communities was carried out by point count method, frugivorous bird morphology character was undertaken by capture-mist netting and morphometric, fruit availability was estimated by extrapolation, feeding behavior was observed by behavior method, and interaction of frugivorous birds-plant was carried out by feces-seed content method and seed germination. Bird community hierarchy cluster contained 17 insectivorous guilds, 6 frugivorous guilds, and 3 granivorous and nectarivorous guilds. Frugivorous birds had gape width-height ratio of . 0.90. The highest shrubland fruit abundance was at the secondary forest (63.86 weight kg.ha-1), while the lowest at KT10 (15.65 weight kg.ha-1). The highest feeding rate was 8 fruits/minute Breynia microphylla by Pycnonotus aurigaster, and 9 fruits/minutes by Pycnonotus goiavier. It was dispersed with the shortest distance 176.4 m Melastoma affine by Pycnonotus aurigaster, while Pycnonotus goiavier dispersed the shortest distance Sambucus javanicus was 100.5 m. There was strong interaction between frugivorous bird-fruit by gape width-height and fruit diameter. Abundance and distribution of seed composition in feces varied among bird spesies and plant. Seed germination passing bird guts was more than pulp artificially removal and seed within intact seed.