Induksi Keragaman Genetik dengan Mutagen Sinar Gamma pada Nenas Secara In Vitro
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Improvement of the genetic variability of pineapple plant can be done by mutation induction with gamma rays. The aim of the research was to increase genetic variability on pineapple through gamma irradiation of calli that have been frequently subculture. Medium for calli induction was MS + 1 mg L-1 benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.05 mg L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), while the medium for shoot regeneration was MS + 1.5 mg L-1 kinetin + 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. Calli were then irradiated with 0, 15, 25 and 35 Gy gamma irradiation. Completely randomized design with 40 replication were used in this experiment. The result showed that irradiation gamma rays were affected on growth and regeneration on calli. Generally, the 15 Gy induced variance of shoot growth, phenotypic and genetic variability. Gamma irradiation changed the banding pattern of DNAs as they were amplified with five primers of ISSR molecular marker to analysis genetic variability among regenerant. Serial selection based on erect leaves structures and narrow canopy diameter character resulted to seven regenerants mutant with erect leaves structure and narrow canopy diameter without reducing plant height and leaves number compared to those of control regenerants population.