Biologi Reproduksi Betina dan Aplikasi Inseminasi Buatan pada Banteng (Bos javanicus d’Alton 1823)
Setiadi, Dedi Rahmat
Arifiantini, R. Iis
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The banteng (Bos javanicus d'Alton 1823) is one of the original Indonesian germplasms to be developed and conserved, and is considered endangered wildlife according to the IUCN Red List (IUCN 2010). The population of wild banteng has declined in many countries. The population decline is caused by illegal hunting, habitat destruction, and the spread of domestic animal-derived diseases. To increase the banteng population in the wild, various efforts are needed, including the use of artificial insemination (AI) reproductive technology. The breeding success of an animal species depends on several interrelated factors, one of which is the reproductive organs factor. Information on the reproductive biology of the Banteng as an ancestor of the Bali cattle is still very limited and poorly known, and knowledge of mating management in the Banteng is still lacking. Basic knowledge of ovarian characteristics related to the estrous cycle and monitoring methods are therefore very important for the success of a mating process. This research was extensively conducted between the monitoring of the reproductive cycle and the changes in the condition of the reproductive organs, namely by monitoring the reproductive cycle using ultrasound (USG). This study consists of 3 experiments. The first experiment aims to describe the characteristics of vaginal cytology and during estrus cycle and observe the clinical signs of estrus Banteng. Two healthy, sexually mature and fertile Banteng females from Taman Safari Indonesia were used for this study. Observation of clinical estrus symptoms and vaginal swabs were performed three times a week and for 5 consecutive days before and after estrus. The obtained vaginal swabs were then stained with Giemsa 0.24%. The epithelial cells obtained were parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and keratinized. Superficial cells are very dominant compared to other cells when estrus occurs, which corresponds to 50.20%, followed by keratinized cells with 38.51%, while other epithelial cells decreased, namely intermediate cells 26.82% and parabasal cells 13.44% for 3 estrus cycles. Readiness to be mounted by a bull or other female banteng at the time of oestrus is the most obvious clinical sign, and vaginal cytology procedures can be used to determine the oestrus cycle of banteng. The second experiment aimed to investigate the use of artificial insemination (AI) techniques based on the results of ultrasonic examination of the reproductive organs of the Banteng. Use of 2 female banteng in Taman Safari Indonesia, Cisarua, Bogor. Habituation to facilitate data collection. Optimal timing for reproduction is determined by examining the reproductive organs using ultrasound (USG) to detect changes in the uterus and ovaries and monitor clinical signs. Examination of follicle size and changes in the uterus of each banteng was performed on days -1, 0, and +1 for 3 oestrus cycles. Insemination is performed 2- 3 times during oestrus until ovulation occurs. The behavior of the banteng is easy to handle, they feel safe, calm and comfortable in the service box. The mean follicle size of the two Banteng females Andini and Uchi was 1.09 ± 0.02 cm on day -1, 1.31 ± 0.02 cm on day 0, and 1.33 ± 0.03 cm on day +1. Artificial insemination was performed when the banteng was still rideable, the follicle size was 1.23-1.38 cm, and the semen was frozen in double dose. Pregnancy status examination was performed by ultrasound on the 21st day after mating, both Banteng females are pregnant after artificial insemination. It can be concluded that this technique of artificial insemination can be used in captive banteng breeding program. The third experiment aimed to diagnose early pregnancy in banteng after insemination and monitor pregnancy by ultrasound (USG). 3 female Banteng in Taman Safari Indonesia, Cisarua, Bogor were used. Pregnancy detection was performed 11, 18 and 20 days after insemination using transrectal ultrasound at a frequency of 5 MHz. The presence of the amniotic sac, the amniotic sac, the heart rate and the development of the embryo and the fetus were examined. Embryo and fetal development were measured until the 60th day of gestation. On the 60th day after matting, monitoring of placentome development in each female banteng until the 270th day of gestation was performed. The results of pregnancy diagnosis on day 20 showed an echoless colored gestational sac (chorioallantoic) with a size of 0.33 cm and white dots inside, the margin was clear and the surrounding tissue was hypoechoic. On day 27 of gestation, the embryo was found to be a hypoechoic structure with a size of 0.55 cm and a gestational sac of 1.16 cm. The placental size of the three banteng Andini, Uchi, and Astuti was 1.21±0.3 cm on day 60 and increased to 5.57±0.26 cm by day 270. Thus, it can be concluded that diagnosis of early pregnancy on day 18 after mating and monitoring of placental development in Banteng can be done by ultrasound. The results of the Banteng reproductive biology study recommend the use of the vaginal swab technique to determine the duration of the estrous cycle in banteng and the implementation of artificial insemination for captive (ex situ) banteng breeding programs. The correct time for insemination is when the bull is still riding, the follicle reaches a size of 1.23 - 1.38 cm, the uterus is maximally tense, and there is mucus accumulation. Ultrasound examination to diagnose early pregnancy can be performed on the 20th day after insemination.
- DT - Veterinary Science