Feed additive of betel leaves meal (Piper betle L.) use on ruminants as one of methane mitigation efforts
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Methane (CH4) is one class of greenhouse gases that could lead to global warming when the concentration of greenhouse gases in excess. Ruminant is one of the biggest methane contributors in agriculture sector. The aim was to evaluate supplementation of Betel leaves meal to decrease methane production. This research was conducted using in vitro technique for 48 hours of incubation time. Methane produced in the rumen was estimated by using data of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) partial concentration, particularly three main acids, i.e. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The experiment used was randomized block design with three replicates and four treatments. The treatments were the addition 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3% of betel leaves meal in feed. The results showed that addition of betel leaves meal into the ration decreased methane production. Betel leaves meal also decreased protozoa population and C2/C3 ratio (p < 0.05), but increased propionic acid (C3) and butiric acid (C4) proportion (p < 0.05). The best dose of betel leaves meal to reduce methane and to maintain optimum rumen condition was 2%.