Chicken Bone Charcoal for Defluoridation of Groundwater in Indonesia
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Animal bone waste in Indonesia is quite high due to the high consumption of chicken, beef and pork. Bone charcoal is charcoal made from animal bones which can be utilized for reducing levels of fluoride (F) in groundwater. This study is aimed to assess the utilization of chicken bones into charcoal to reduce levels of fluoride (defluoridation) groundwater in Indonesia. Materials used in this study are chicken bones as raw materials for bone charcoal. The measured variables were (1) The quality of chicken bone charcoal, (2) Adsorption capacity of the bone charcoal to Fluoride in groundwater. The results showed that chicken bone charcoal consists of O2, Ca, P, C, Na, Mg and Al. Chicken bone charcoal has a quite high of the adsorption capacity as much as 67%. The more chicken bone charcoal is added to the higher percentage of Fluoride tends to increase the adsorption capacity up to 12 h. Therefore, chicken bone waste has a high potency to be processed become chicken bone charcoal for defluoridation of ground water.