Capability of Streptomyces spp. in Controlling Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease in Rice Plants
Hastuti, Ratih Dewi
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Problem statement: Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the most damaging disease in lowland rice growing areas in Indonesia. Streptomyces spp. have been known as a producer of antimicrobial compounds that can be used as biocontrol agents. This study examined the ability of three promising indigenous Streptomyces isolates which were previously selected from in vitro agar media and greenhouse test to suppress natural infection of Xoo during dry and wet season trials in 2009/2010 at the Muara Experimental Research Station, Bogor West Java, Indonesia. Approach: Streptomyces isolates (PS4-16, LBR-02 and LSW-05) were applied through seed coating in a peat-based carrier followed by seedling soaking, spray treatment, or combination of both methods, either singly or in combination of two or three isolates. The number of Streptomyces population in the peat carrier at the time of inoculation was above 107 cell g-1 • The efficacy of Streplomyces was compared to that chemical spray using NORDOX 56 WP (a.i., zinc oxide 56%) and non-treatment Treated and untreated seeds were grown in plots (SxS m2 ) and set in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Results: In the dry season experiment, application of Streptomyces spp. reduced BLB severity when compared to that of untreated plots, although did not reduce BLB incidence. PS4-16, applied singly through seed coating followed by seedling soaking, reduced the Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) at 70 Days After Planting (OAP) to 1458, which was equally effective to the chemical spray (AUDPC value 1434) and simultaneously promoted plant height and gave the highest rice yield. In the wet season trial PS4-16 and LBR-02, applied singly or in dual combination through seed coating followed by seedling soaking, suppressed BLB severity, PS4-16 was confinned as the most effective isolate by reducing the AUDPC to 1923, which was not significantly different to the AUDPC value obtained from chemical spray treatment (1934). Conclusion/Recommendations: All Streptomyces isolates had a tendency to increase plant and yield compared to the chemically-sprayed and non-treated plots. For successful biological control of rice BLB, further development of a better formulation for long-term storage with an effective population density of Streptomyces and an assessment of its field efficacy in multi-location trials are needed.