Agronomic Performance and Yield Potential of 18 Corn Varieties in Indonesia
Suwarno, W. B.
Sutjahjo, S. H.
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Corn is an important crop in Indonesia, yet the national average production is still relatively low (4.5 t ha-1). The objective of this study were (1) to evaluate agronomic performance of 18 Indonesia corn varieties and (2) to compare yield potential of these varieties. This research was conducted at the IPB UF Cikabayan Experimental Station, Darmaga. Bogor. A single-factor randomized complete block design with two replications was used. with an experimental unit size of two 4-m rows plot. Fourteen phenotypic traits, including eight agronomic characters and six yield-related traits were observed. Analyses of variance were performed to elaborate genotype effects on these traits at 0.05 and 0.1 levels. followed by the Duncan Multiple Range Test if the effects are significant. Additionally. cluster analyses based on phenotypic traits were performed to elucidate genetic distances and groups among the genotypes. The results showed that the agronomic performance and yield potential of these genotypes are not different at 0.05 level; however, the genotypic effects on germination rate, ear height, ear weight per plot, and grain yield per plot, tend to differ at 0.10 level. Two groups of genotypes were shown from the result of clustering, yet apparently the distances between genotypes were small (< 10%). These results provide insight and opportunity to develop improved corn varieties through plant breeding, combining conventional selection methods and advance biotechnological tools.