Usahatani Tebu dan Daya Saing Industri Gula Indonesia
Asmarantaka, Ratna Winandi
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This study aims to: (a) analyze production performance, productivity and efficiency of sugarcane farm household, (b) analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian sugarcane in the world market, and (c) analyze position of growth or dynamics of Indonesian sugarcane. This research was conducted in Lampung Province as a sugarcane production centers outside Java. The data used were primary and secondary data. The primary data were obtained from sugarcane farmers in which efficiency was analyzed using regression analysis, farm income and R/C. Secondary data were used for competitiveness analysis (RCA, Revealed Comparative Advantage) and growth of sugar export (EPD, Export Product Dynamics). The results showed that sugarcane productivity (ratoon and plant cane) was influenced by all factors and had positive sign as expected. In terms of plant cane, income per nominal cost per hectare about Rp 20 million with R/C 2.04 and income per total cost about Rp 19 million with R/C 1,95. The results of ratoon sugarcane farm income was relatively higher, productivity of sugar produced at 5,240 tonnes / hectare with yield and price equal to plant cane, so income per nominal cost per hectare about Rp 24.947 million with R/C 2,54 and income per total costs per hectare amounted to Rp 22.947 million with R/C 2,22. RCA analysis results showed that Indonesian sugar exports was uncompetitive (RCA index was smaller than 1), there is a tendency to decline fluctuatively. Through analysis of EPD, the position of Indonesian sugar export market growth was stagnant and negative. This position was located in Retreat quadrant. Thereby, in order to change the position into positive growth and dynamic position it is necessary to change or improve the sugar industry, starting from farming system, manufacture, marketing and supporting institutions, or to enhance and improve sugar agribusiness system overall.
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