Perbanyakan In Vitro dan Induksi Akumulasi Alkaloid pada Tanaman Jeruju (Hydrolea spinosa L.)
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Hydrolea spinosa is one of the potential plant for antimalarial medicine. Local people in South Kalimantan call the plant as jeruju. The alkaloid compound in this plant has antiplasmodial activity. The growth of these auxilarry shoots of this plant will be inhibited when is grown on the soil medium due to the different environment of original habitat (swamp areal). Therefore, tissue culture is an alternative propagation of this plant. Tissue culture method can also be used as a technique for improve alkaloid compound. The objectives of this research were to study in vitro micropropagation and to study improvement of alkaloid content in H. spinosa. Shoot induction and proliferation was studied using shoot tip and node segments in MS medium with various concentration of BAP (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 mg L-1), whereas callus induction from young leaf and stem explants used MS medium with various concentration of 2.4-D or NAA (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1) with 5 mg L-1 BAP. Shoot elongation was done using different strength of MS salts (full-, a half-, one-quarter strength) and with or without addition of 1.0 mg L-1 gibberellin (GA3). The addition of 138 mg L-1 elicitor (salicylic acid), 100 mg L-1 precursor amino acid (tryptophan) and high sucrose (6%) in MS medium used to improve alkaloid content in callus and shoot cultures. The result showed that cytokinin level produced a significant response on the numbers of shoot per explants and also showed effect on node number. Both of shoot tip and node segments had a similar potential as explants in shoot induction and proliferation. The presence of plant growth regulator was important to induce callus but the concentration was no significant effect on callus initiation. The young leaf explants was better than stem in callus induction. The half strength of MS salts produced root with vigorous planlets. The planlets produced from elongation phase were acclimatized and had survival rate up to 75%. All of the treatments of inducing alkaloid were not effect to alkaloid content qualitatively.