The use of picloram on somatic embryogenesis regeneration of pineapple
Wattimena, Gustaf Adolff
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This is the first report showing the complete event of somatic embryogenesis of pineapple. This research aimed to study the effect of picloram to induce somatic embryogenesis of pineapple from the early event of embryogenic cells formation to the germinated embryos. Callus formation were induced by picloram (21, 41, and 62 uM) with addition of 9 uM TDZ. The calli were transferred into N-enriched MS or Bac medium with addition of 6.8 uM Gln, 500 mg l-1 CH, 0.69 mM Arg, and 0.027 uM Gly with or without addition of 21 uM picloram to proliferate embryogenic calli. The compact calli were subcultured onto Kin containing medium while the friable calli were transferred onto MS medium supplemented with 0.018 mM BA or modified MS medium with addition of 0.9 uM IBA, 1.1 uM BA, 0.09 uM GA3 for embryos development. The somatic embryogenesis of pineapple could be induced by using picloram. The highest callus formation (90%) resulted from 21 uM picloram. The ETs and FETs formation (100% respectively) were easy to form rather than embryogenic calli. The events of somatic embryogenesis started from polarized cell, asymmetrical division of the embryogenic cells to pre-embryo stage and followed by the embryo stages of globular, scutellar and coleoptillar, finished with the embryos germination. The ETs could be regenerated after 2 months yielded more than 17 embryos/explant whereas the FETs could be regenerated after 2.5 months yielded more than 14 embryos/explant.