Evaluasi Ekonomi Lahan Pertanian: Pendekatan Nilai Manfaat Multifungsi Lahan Sawah Dan Lahan Kering
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Agricultural lands not only produce food and fibre, but also generate social and economic services such as job opportunities, rural culture preservation, and food security, as well as environmental services such as flood mitigation, erosion and sedimentation preventions, water resource conservation, and biodiversity. These services are called multifunctionality. The output of multifunctionality is public goods since the beneficiaries are not only farmers but also the public at large. The value of environmental services produced by farmers, in general, is not accounted in the current market mechanism, and in most cases is ignored in the policy making. This condition leads to lack of attractiveness of farming, which subsequently leads to conversion of agricultural lands. This paper presents research results on economic valuation on the multifunctionality of agricultural lands, particularly paddy fields and upland farming in Citarik Sub Watershed, Bandung District, West Java. The results showed that using replacement cost method (RCM) the economic value (EV) of paddy fields and uplands were Rp 55.4 million and Rp 9.9 million/ha/year, respectively. The EV of paddy fields consisted of environmental services (71.4%) and marketable products (28.6%). It means that farmers had provided free of charge environmental services to the society. The community's knowledge on multifunctionality of agriculture based on interview was still low. Around 66% of respondents recognized only one to two agricultural multifunctionality aspects.