Pemanfaatan Pohon Mangrove Api-Api (Avicennia Spp.) Sebagai Bahan Pangan Dan Obat (Utilization of Mangrove Tree Species Api-Api (Avicennia Spp.) as Materials for Food and Medicine)
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The objective of this research were identifying and quantifying materials and substances occurring in various tissues ( h i t / seed, leaves, seed coat, bark, wood, root, and sap) of three mangrove species (Avicennia marina, A. lanata and A. alba), which had potentials as food and medicine. Samples of those tissue materials were collected &om North Jakarta, Bali and Papua during period &om June to August 2009. The tissue materials were afterwards subjected to qualitative, semiquantitative and quantitative analysis in laboratory. Considerable amount of alkaloid, saponin and glycoside were found in all of those tissues. Tannin occurred in leaves, seed (hit), and seed coat; and in low amount in stems, sap and roots. Flavonoid occurred in large amount in seed coat, bark, seed (fruit), stems and roots. However, flavonoid occurred in lower amount in leaves and sap. Triterpenoid occurred in all of those tissues, mainly in leaves and roots. Steroids were not detected in all of those tissues. Ethanol extraction of A. marina leaves identified 1,2 propadiene, naphtalene, succinic dimetyl tetramethyl, lucidol, Isophyllocladene, dioxepane, and naphtol. On the other hand, hexane extraction identified only 1,2 propadiene. Leaves of the three Avicennia species had considerable amount of protein, fiber, carbohydrate, and minerals (Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na). Analysis were also conducted for vitamin, fat, calorie, and amino acid content on the leaves and seed (fruit) of the Avicennia plants. It could be concluded that the leaves are potential for forage, while the seeds (fruits) of the Avicennia are potential for human food.
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