Women access to market: vegetable marketing of women in the Village Of Hambaro, Nanggung Subdistrict, West Java
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The Vegetable Agro forestry (VAF) System developed through the SANREM Project in Indonesia is located at the Nanggung, a sub-district , Bogor District, West Java Province. In Nanggung, agriculture production is dominated by men with women have little access and control over land, capital and production inputs. Although still dominated by men, a fair number of women have access (12.6%) and control (12.6%) over marketing of agricultural products and 12.2% of women have access to information on the price of agricultural products. This study aims to compare how gendered networks and coalitions affect the ability of groups to access and control natural resources and to access appropriate markets and capture value for their agricultural products. The stuciy showed that men produce and sell main agricultural products such as rice , corn or cassava, while women may produce and selt minor vegetables. Most agricultural products are used for consumption and the surplus are sold around the village or to the middlemen. Commercial production by women farmers started with jasmine flower and tater with guava. In the village of Hambaro, the access to market is open to everyone, but dominated by men. Only a small number of women in Hambaro use the access to market their products. All nodes in the marketing network of vegetables and fruit/guava are dominated by men. The middlemen provide information on demand and price of products. Men and women obtain the same price when they use the same network. Men get higher price only when they go directly to the big market. Most women do not negotiate for price only on the term of payment. Although men dominated the market for vegetables and fruits, the allocation of expenditures from the sale of vegetables and fruits are similar to that of women. The source of power of men is from the long established network between men and the middlemen. In addition to institutionalized farmer groups and access to capital. The source of power of women is mainly from family networking and supports. Women who are actively participated in marketing gain support from their husband in production and marketing of vegetables and are more confidence in negotiating obstacles in marketing Katuk by selling directly to consumers/retail and obtained higher price than from middlemen.