Detoxification of Jatropha Curcas Meal as Poultry Feed
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The increasing ofJatropha curcas cultivation as raw material ofbiodiesel in Indonesia leads to increase Jatropha curcas meal as byproduct. Besides being a source of oil, Jatropha also provides a meal which may serve as a highly nutritious protein suplement in animalfeed ifthe toxins are removed. Curcin and phorbol ester are the main toxic components contained in the Jatropha curcas meal. This experiment was conducted to study the effects ofvarious treatments (physical, chemical, biological) of Jatropha curcas meal on curcin, protein utilization efficiency, metabolizable energy values, retention of calcium and phosphorus. The treatments used in this experiment were: (I) heat treatment using autoclave at 12I"C during 30 minutes; (2) adding NaOH 4%, followed by autoclaving at 12I"C during 30 minutes; (3) fermentation using Rhizopus oligosporus. To determine the protein utilization efficiency, retention ofcalcium and phosphorus as well as metabolizable energy values, 23 broilers of35 days of age were used in this experiment. The chickens were placed in individual cages and the excreta were collected during four days. The experimental diets used in this experiment were: BD (100% basal diet), TO (80%BD + 20% untreated Jatropha curcas), Tphys (80%BD + 20% heat treated Jatropha curcas}, Tchem (80%BD + 20% chemical treated Jatropha curcas), Tbiol (80%BD + 20% biological treated Jatropha curcas). The data of curcin was analysed descriptively and the others data were analysed using analyses ofvariance. The results showed that physical, chemical as well as biological treatments decreased the curcin ofJatropha curcas meal up to 66.7%, 77.8% and 22.2%, respevtively, compared to the untreated one. All of the treatments increased the protein utilization efficiency with the values of 12.1% (TO), 36.6% (Tphys), 44.5% (Tchem) and 48.2% (Tbiol). The retention of calcium were 22.2% (TO). 28.8 % (Tphys), 31.2% (Tchem) and 38.4% (Tbiol). The retention of phosporus were 26.0% (TO), 51.5% (Tphys), 43.2% (Tchem) and 50.5% (Tbiol). The metabolizable energy (MEn) values were 2505.2 kcal/kg (TO), 3055.9 kcal/kg (Tphys), 3017.5 kcal/kg (Tchem) and 3152:5 kcal/kg (Tbiol). The conclusion of this experiment is that biological treatment (fermentation using Rhizopus oligosporus) is the best method to detoxify the toxins and thus increasing the nutruitive value ofthe Jatropha curcas meal for poultry.