Integrated Watershed Management to Prevent Floods and Sustain Water Resources In Jakarta, Indonesia
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There are nine major rivers flowing through Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. Total extent of the nine watersheds in Jakarta and its vicinity is about 106 000 ha . Average annual rainfall of 17 stations (1972-1999) throughout the watersheds is 2 973 mm. These make the total water resources throughout Jakarta is about 3.151 billion cubic meters per year (cmy). Average water demand for agricultural uses is about 4.0 mm perday or 1 460 mm per year or 1.548 billion cmy throughout the watersheds. Therefore, the total annual retained water as storage in the soils, ponds, lakes, reservoirs, ground water,vegetations, rivers, and for municipal use will be only 1 513 mm or 1.296 billion cmy. Water demand (municipal use) for 11 million people in the nine watersheds is about 1.288 billion cmy or 360 liter per capita per day in urban area and 180 liter in rural area. Water demand for industries uses is about 16 million cmy. Water loss through floods during rainy seasons is about 1.020 billion cmy due to the increasing runoff coefficient of the watersheds Changing land use and improper agricultural management are likely the main cause of the increasing runoff coefficient. The losses of water have caused inevitable lacking of water for municipal uses during dry seasons. It is clear from this analysis that the water problems in Jakarta is not only frequent and high floods in rainy seasons but also lacking of water for municipal use in dry seasons. These situations seem to be worse in the future. Therefore, the water problems in Jakarta need an extremely great attention. The key to undertake these problems is a set of activities in an integrated and holistic watershed management programs which may called Jakarta Megapolitan Water Management System.
- Faculty of Agriculture