Studi Pembuatan Mentega Cokelat Tiruan dari Minyak Sawit dengan Proses Interesterifikasi
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The more abundance palm oil supply in Indonesia in one hand and the higher demand of cocoa butter on the other hand, has resulted in the requirement to diversify palm oil's products. Cocoa butter equivalent/substitute (CBE/S) is one of the choices. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to create a reliable CBEJS technological process. The study is an explorative research. The basic principle in the preparation of CBE is an effort to produce the major triglyceride components of CBE namely 1,3 dipalmitoyl-2sleoyl-glycerol (POP), 1- palmitoyl-2sleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol (POS), and 1,3-distearoyl-2sleoyl-glycerol (SOS) in particular composition and concentrations. There were several steps in the exploration of CBE preparation. The fvst one was the approach through the concentration increment of triglyceride POP from olein by mean of the enzymatically acidolysis reaction with palmitic acid , the second one was the concentration increment of the monoglyceride 2-mono-oleat by mean of the enzymatic hydrolysis of olein using a specific lipase-1,3 , the third one was acidolysis of POP rich olein, acidolysis of 2-mono-oleat olein as well as the direct acidolysis of olein(al1 with stearic acid) which was followed by the experiments using our own designed packed bed reactor for one of the best results of reaction mixture. Having trimmed the less successful results, the main results of this study can be summarized as follows. The interesterification reaction (i.e. acidolysis of stearic incorporation into a glyceride mixture) required a microaqeous condition which was achieved by utilizing either anhydrous sodium sulphate and/or molecular sieves. Small scale experiments of interesterification process in shaken flasks revealed two best conditions. Firstly, the use of stearic acidlolein ratio of 0.5: 1.0 in 30 ml hexane for 60 hr, with 10 % of Lipozyme IM (on olein basis which was 6 g), temperature of 55 OC at rotation of 250 rpm. Secondly, the use of stearic acidolein ratio of 1.5:l.O in 50 ml hexane for 48 hr, with the rest conditions were the same as in the first case. The CBE indexes achieved were 55.8 and 57.5 for the first and the second respectively, while the composition of POPPOSfSOS were 14.83%/38.14W3.69% and 10.55%/27.41%/19.13% for the first and the second respectively. A scale up study for these two best conditions (5X, 10X and 20 X for the first, and lox, 20 X for the second) showed the decrease of the CBE index to become around 30 and around 17 for the first and the second respectively. Among the scale-up results, the POP/POS/SOS compositions were relatively close one among the others, but with lower concentrations as compared to the original scale. On the development process using our own bioreactor (packed bed reactor with recirculation), the best result needed 6 hr reaction time and resulted in CBE index of 5 1.1 1 having POPIPOSISOS of 5.71%/ 1 1.47%/5.%%. It happened here (and in the scale up process too) that the concentrations of POP, POS and SOS decreased dramatically as compared to those of original shaken flasks. It was probably due to the lesser intensity of molecular collision.