Produksi Pigmen Angkak oleh Monascus
Monascus is one of the important molds for producing food colorants. Monascus produces non polar, semi polar, as well as polar food colorants and brown, red or yellow poliketide pigments. The production is usually done under solid state system, but various submerged systems have been developed. Immobilized systems showed prospective results. The pigment production is influenced by the availability of carbon and nitrogen sources, humidity, temperature, pH, and aeration. Poliketide pigments are used as food colorant in animal products, beverages, yoghurt, nata de coco, and daily home cooking practices. The stability of the pigments is influenced by temperature (various heating treatments), pH (acidity), oxygen, water activity, and light. Beside pigments, Monascus also produces various non-pigment metabolites, such as citrinin (a nephrotoxic agent), lovastatin (a hypocholesteremic agent), and monascidin (an antibacterial agent).