Keragaman Karakter Kuaitatif dan Kuantitatif pada Populasi Tanaman Somaklon Kedelai dari Embrio Somatik Hasil Seleksi In Vitro
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The objectives of this experiment were to regenerate population of soybean somaclonal variants from somatic embryos (SE), evaluate the existence of variation on qualitative and quantitative characters, and identify the genetics or epigenetics nature of the variant phenotypes among population of somaclonal variants. Somatic embryos were induced on selective medium containing 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG). The SE that was tolerance to stress due to PEG in the media was germinated and population of somaclonal variant lines derived from three soybean genotypes (B3731, MLG2999, and MSC8606) were developed. Various qualitative and quantitative characters were compared among population of the original lines and the SC1 and SC2 generation of somaclonal variants. The genetics and epigenetics nature controlling variant phenotypes were determined by comparing observation among SC1 and SC2 population. The results showed that large variation in qualitative and quantitative characters of SC1 population originated from SE and SC2 population from selfing of SC1. Among qualitative characters, rosette leaf, male sterility, leaf base fusion, and pentafoliate leaflets were genetically controlled while multiple shoots and difoliate leaflets were epigenetics. Most of somaclonal variant lines showed less value for various quantitative characters compared to original lines. However, a number of somaclonal variants showed relatively higher seed yield compared to the original lines.