Pola Pembinaan Habitat Burung di Kawasan Pemukiman Terutama di Perkotaan
Hernowo, Jarwadi B.
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The important factors that support bud species living in settlement areas are vegetation nructure and composition. the diversity and size of habitat types and human activity pressures. These factors, cumulatively form the ecological niches of birds in settlements areas. The roles of plants for many bud species in settlement areas can be identified as source of variety of foods, feeding sites, nesting sites and shelter. The results of this research indicate that the plants species which have important roles in supporting the existence of buds in settlement areas are: Paraserianthes falcataria, Parkia speciosa. Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophvlla, .Vephelium Inppaceum, Cocos nucifera and Bambusa spp. All of these plans are cultivated as home garden and agricultural plants. Habitat types and their sizes affect the distribution, species diversity and population of buds in settlement areas. The settlement areas dominated by vegetation or geenspace tend to have a higher bud diversity than other areas where the greenspace ate less dominant. Similarly. the settlement areas with a high extent of human activities tend to have low bud diversity. During the observation period, 63 bud species were recorded in all observation sites. From the settlement areas in Bogor which are dominated by plantations, gardens, rice fields and other agricultural areas and forests (primarily monocultured forest), have been observed consecutively 34. 33 and 30 bud species. These observed species number reflects the settlement areas with the highest species richness for Bogor region. In Jakarta, the highest species richness is found in the settlements areas with ca. 20 '% vegetation coverage. However, based on the diversity and equitability index, settlement areas dominated by forest and plantation show the hlghest value for Bogor region, while m Jakarta region, the highest diversity and equitability index is found in settlement areas with 40 - 60 % vegetation coverage. m o n g the bud species found, the most common buds occurring in all observation sites are white-bellied Swiftlet (Collocalia esculenta), .-\shy Tailorbird (Orthotomus ruficeps), Bar-winged Prinia (hinia famliaris), Scarlet-headed Flowerpeckcer (Dicaeum trochileum), Brown-thoarted Sunbud (Anthreptes malacensis), Olive-backed Sunbud (Necrarinia /itgularis), Sooty-headed BuIbuls (@cnonorus aurigaster). Yellow-vented Bulbul tP. goiavier), Oriental White-eye (Zosterops palpebrosa), Javan Munia (Lonhura leucogastroides) and Eurasian Tree-spanow (Passer monranusr. These buds are typical for settlement areas and have a high adaptation ability to settlement habitat types.