Model Of Intercropping Models For Smallholder Coffee Farmers In Tanggamus Regency, Lampung Province
Budhi, Ade Wachyar Gelar Satya
Rafani, Gelar Satya Budhi Iqbal
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The majority of coffee plantation in Indonesia is cultivated by smallholders (96.2%), while the rest are under state and private managements namely 3.1 percent and 2.7 percent respectively (Ditjenbun, 2016). The most widely cultivated coffee in this country is Robusta with an area of 899,627 hectares (73.1%) and production of 466,492 tons (73%). The rest is Arabica coffee with respected area and production of 330,373 hectares (26.9%) and 172,919 tons (27%). The main existing problems are low production, productivity, and quality. The low production is partly due to land conversion from coffee crops to other crops (sugarcane, fruits, oil palm, etc.). Moreover, the low productivity and quality of coffee crop are due to: (1) non-productive (young/not yet yielded or old/damage); (2) not superior seed category; (3) less implemented Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs); (4) low provision of technical production inputs (fertilizer, pesticide, etc.); (5) low extend of harvest and postharvest handling; and (6) climate change (long rainy and dry seasons). Technically, coffee can be planted either with monoculture or polyculture patterns. In monoculture pattern, generally in large plantations, coffee crops are grown using Leucaena glauca and Moghania macrophilla as permanent and temporary shading plants respectively. Meanwhile, in polyculture pattern, apart from Leucaena glauca as a permanent shading plant, coffee crop can be planted with other crops such as estate crops (pepper, nutmeg, etc.) and fruit crops (orange, avocado, banana, etc.). This pattern is commonly practiced in smallholding farms.
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