Perubahan Biologis dan Fisiologis Sebagai Indikator Masak Benih Kakao Hibrida
Suhartanto, M. R.
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The development and rehabilitation programs or cacao need high quality seed. The high quality of cacao seeds is influenced by seeds physiological maturity and harvesting time. Several important indicators related to the seed physiological maturity are biological and physiological characters. The research objectives were: (1) to study biological and physiological changes during or seed development, (2) to study on the correlation of various charactcristies related with seeds physiology and quality, (3) to determine the most appropriate harvesting time for hybrid cacao seed or TSH 858 x Sea 6 and ICS 60 x Sca 6. The research was conducted at Coffee and Cacao Research Institute of Indonesia (Puslitkoka) in Jember, IPB Biophysics and Seeds and Technology Laboratory and Biotechnology Research lnstitute for Estate Crops Indonesia glass house in Bogor from February to September 2008. The seeds were originated from hand pollination of TSH 858 vs Sca 6 and ICS 60 vs Sca 6 hybrids from Puslitkoka Jember. The seeds for this research were harvested on : 120, 135, 150, 165, and 180 days after anthesis (DAA); with four replications each. Data were analyzed and presented as graphs standard deviation in excel; while the relationship or each character of seeds quality was determined using path analysis by SAS for Windows v.9.1. The results showed that the seed physiological changed on two phases during its development. The first phase started from seeds development up to physiological maturity for TSH 858 x Sca 6 and as well ICS 60 x Sca 6 hybrids, and second phases started after physiological maturity. The physiological maturity of each sceeds is 150 DAA for TSH 858 x Sca 6 and 165 DAA for ICS 60 X Sca 6 hybrids. Seed germination pcrocentage, vigor Index, germination rate (Kcr-R and T50), wet and dry weight of seed, seeds and f'rults carotenoid content, seed and fruit anthocyanin content, number or leaves, and height or seedling reached maximum when seed achieved physiological maturity and decreased afterward. During seed development, there was decreasing of seeds and fruits chlorophyll content and Increased for the yellow color or fruit. The characters which showed direct correlation with seeds quality during seed development of TSH 858 x Sca 6 and ICS 60 x Sca 6 hybrids are : yellow color or fruit, vigor index, chlorophyll content for seeds and fruit, seed carotenoid and anthocyanin content, germination rate (T50, Kcr-R), seedling height and seed dry weight.