Karakteristik habitat dan populasi monyet hitam sulawesi (Macaca nigra Desmarest, 1822) pada beberapa tipe habitat di Cagar Alam Tangkoko, Sulawesi Utara
Habitat characteristics and population size of black crested macaque (Macaca nigra Desmarest, 1822) in several habitat types in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi
Hakim, Safinah Surya
Mustari, Abdul Haris
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This study was conducted in Tangkoko Nature Reserve Bitung-North Sulawesi from July to August 2009. The objectives of this study were to identify habitat characteristics of Macaca nigra including physical component, vegetation structure, canopy cover, water availability, food availability, and to assess the population size in Tangkoko Nature Reserve. Vegetation analysis were made in five habitat types including beach forest, primary lowland forest, secondary lowland forest, transitional (ecotone) forest and burned forest. Fifty seven plant species from 29 families including seedling, sapling, pole, and tree were identified during this study. Population size was determined by direct encounter. Trees from family Anacardiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Verbenaceae, and Clusiaceae were dominant in study area. The highest Diversity Index was found in lowland transitional forest. Similarity Index shown that every habitat types had little similarity, the biggest similarity index was found between primary forest and transitional (43.10 %). Canopy stratum C (4 - 20 m) was dominant in the study area. The most complex canopy strata were found in primary forest which had canopy stratum A, B, and C. Canopy cover density in the study area was relatively high with more than 85 % except in burned forest with a canopy cover density of 40.73 %. Macaca nigra more active in location with higher canopy cover density than in areas that have less canopy cover density. The cover was used by Macaca nigra for concealment, sleeping, eating, and resting. Five water resources were recorded in Tangkoko Nature Reserve during this study. Macaca nigra used these water resources as drink water sources, bathing places, reducing heat, and as playground areas. Nineteenth plant species were recorded eaten by Macaca nigra and fruit was their primary diet. During the study, nine groups of Macaca nigra were found. Four group (Rambo I, Rambo II, Rambo III, and Pantai Batu) intensively observed to know its population structure, sex ratio, and population size. Population size of these groups was 221 individuals. Based on the analysis with ArcView 3.3, the study site covering an area of 686.456 ha. Group size was 14 – 72 individuals/group. The group density was 0.58 groups/km2 and population density was 32.2 ind/km2. Ecotourism activities, hunting and habitat pressure (forest fire and Ilegal logging) are the main threats for Macaca nigra sustainability.