Sintesis dan Karakterisasi Biodiesel dari Minyak Biji Karet (Hevea brasiliensis) Melalui Proses Estrans (Esterifikasi- Transesterifikasi)
Muhammad Yusuf MF
Ono Suparno S
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Biodiesel is alkyl ester produced from of vegetable, animal or fat oil derivate which could be used in diesel machine. One of the materials that can be used in making biodiesel is rubber seed oil. In order to influence the effective and efficient of biodiesel production, the process held in two steps esterificationtransesterification with the appropriate catalyst. The process had to be held in two step because of the high concentration of free fatty acid in rubber seed oil. The general purpose of this research was to add the utilization of rubber seed oil. The particular purposes of this research were to obtain the opted esterification-transesterification process from rubber seed oil and to know the characteristic of biodiesel produced from rubber seed oil esterificationtransesterification process and compare it with the obtained biodiesel standard. The result of proximate analysis of rubber seed showed that fat concentration in rubber seed was high enough about 38.65 % (dry basis) and the mean of rubber seed oil yield after extraction was 15.69 %. The characteristics of rubber seed oil after degumming were; cinematic viscosity at 40 oC was 23.31 cSt, the oil density at 25 oC was 0.896 g/ml and fatty acid value was 22.22 mg KOH/g of sample. Moreover, the oil could not be used directly as biodiesel because of three parameter values were higher than the standard. Therefore, the Esterification-Transesterification process must be carried out, so biodiesel that produced could fulfill the standard and could be used as fuel. Based on biodiesel production of rubber seed oil through Esterification- Transesterification could be known that the opted condition of esterification process was at A1B2C3 (HCl 1 %, reaction time 120 minutes, and mole ratio of methanol: oil = 20:1), fatty acid value was 0.32 mg KOH/g sample. The opted condition of transesterification was at A1B2 (reaction time 30 minutes and mole ratio of methanol:oil = 6:1), cinematic viscosity at 40 oC was 4.77 cSt, yield of biodiesel was about 74.51 %, and fatty acid value was 0.22 mg KOH/g of sample. Based on biodiesel characterization, the biodiesel quality produced in this research was appropriate with the standard of biodiesel for cinematic viscosity, density, fatty acid number, and flash point.