Woman international migration, land occupation and gender equality research in paddy Rice Field Village community West Java
Migrasi internasional perempuan, penguasaan lahan dan kesetaraan gender: kajian di komunitas Desa Sawah Jawa Barat
Wahyuni, Ekawati Sri
Kolopaking, Lala M.
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International migration of female labors from villages of West Java to Middle Eastern countries, especially to Saudi Arabia, is caused by a combination of lack of job opportunity, lack of land ownership, poverty, the opening of opportunity to work abroad with relatively simple requirement, and much higher wages than it is in Indonesia. The objective of the research is to analyze the linkage between international migration of female labors, land ownership and gender equality in West Java. Paradigm used in this research is Post-Positivism which combines quantitative and qualitative methods. The research is conducted in two villages in two regencies. Data is obtained through in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion with exmigrants, migrants on leave, and newly ex-migrants, and also with key informants, such as sponsors/middlemen of labor service company (PJTKI), village elites, and traditional, religious, educational and women leaders. Number of respondents is 134 people.The results suggestthatinternationalmigrationof womenfrom both villages is a form ofsurvivalandcopingstrategies of poor rural households who are landless farmers.West Javan rural women, by working as domestic workers abroad, are able to save their family‟s economy, and therefore, have a “strong” position in their communities.There are twotypes ofmigrant familiesin utilizingremittance: (1) those who use itforvariousproductiveandlong-term needs, such as purchasingof land(dry land and paddy rice field), businesscapital, and for continuingeducationof family members, and (2) Families who spendthe money forconsumptive purposes, such as buyingvarioushousehold goods and clothes and for family recreation. Expenses other than the needs forproduction and consumption are expenditures for charities for social, religious and national causes.These charities have become a sort of recognition to the rise of thesocialstatusof migrantwomenin theircommunities.Rationalreasons for buying land are: (1)provisionof daily meals; (2) preparationtobuilda house; (3) businesscapital; (4) saving for the future; (5) for not tobecomefarm labors; (6) as reservefor the event of ngamumule-mulasara; and (7)the cost of educationof family members.The implicationsofruralland occupationbymigrantwomenare: a more equalgenderrelations, the beginning of emancipation citizenshipand a formation processtowards theestablishment ofthe existence ofwoman. The existenceof woman changesgenderrelations to become moreequalat rural family, household andcommunity levels. This is partlyvisiblein form ofdivision of laborbetweenman andwomanin familiesandhouseholds that is nolonger rigidly basedongender.
- DT - Human Ecology