Spatial Modeling of Tapir (Tapirus indicus Desmarest 1819) Habitat Suitability in Resort Batang Suliti-Kerinci Seblat National Park
Pemodelan Spasial Kesesuaian Habitat Tapir (Tapirus indicus Desmarest 1819) di Resort Batang Suliti-Taman Nasional Kerinci Seblat
Koeswara, Dieta Arbaranny
Prasetyo, Lilik Budi
Putro, Haryanto R.
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Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP) is one of the habitats for tapir (Tapirus indicus) which recently the natural population of these species is declining due to the forest conversion activity. Tapir population status has been categorized as Endangered Species refers to the IUCN Red List and listed as Appendix I of CITES. Ditjen PHKA-Ministry of Forestry has made the strategy and conservation action plan to ensure the sustainability of tapir populations and its habitats. Variety of data are required in order to support the tapir conservation action. Some of important data that needed were consisted of spatial data and information about the tapir distribution and habitat suitability which can be obtained by using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The purpose of this research is to identify the model and the area of tapir habitat suitability in the Resort Batang Suliti KSNP. Data were collected in the Resort Batang Suliti-KSNP in three months (July- September 2009). Tapir habitat suitability model was built by analyzed six components of the habitat such as elevation, slope, distance to rivers, distance to roads, distance to forest edge, and a value of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Six habitat components were analyzed using GIS and RS to produce thematic maps of each habitat component (layer). The 71 points of tapir traces that found in the field were identified to each layer of habitat components. Then, the results were analyzed by using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) to get the weight of each habitat component, so that the model of tapir habitat suitability can be developed. The tapir habitat suitability map is derived from the result of overlaying the habitat components and the model, and it was validated by using the distribution data of tapirs which found when the survey activity was conducted in the research sites. The results of PCA produced three principal components with total initial eigenvalues 2.015, 1.233 and 1.127 with the value of cumulative diversity can be explained is 72.924%. Tapir habitat suitability model was obtained is Y = (1.233 X Elevation factor) + (2.015 x Slope factor) + (1.233 x Distance to river factor) + (2.015 x Distance to road factor) + (2.015 x Distance to forest edge factor) + (1.127 x NDVI values factor). Tapir habitat suitability map is divided into three suitability classes: low suitability class (1,979.73 ha/7.28%), medium suitability class (15,638.76 ha/57.54%), and high suitability class (9,563.85 ha/35.18%The validation for the low suitability class is 0%, the medium suitability class is 57.14%, and the high suitability class is 42.86%. Tapir habitat suitability model can be accepted with 100% validation in medium and high suitability class.